Friday 12 May 2017Ministry of Environment and Forests
In pursuance of the reporting obligations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Chance (UNFCCC), India has historically undertaken the initiative to communicate information about the implementation of the Convention, taking into account the common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities and specific regional and national development priorities, objectives and circumstances. The elements of information provided in the communication include a national inventory of anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of all greenhouse gases, a general description of steps taken to implement the Convention including an assessment of impacts and vulnerability, and any other relevant information. The communication is meant to provide the context and the national circumstances inter-alia India's geography, imperative of development needs, climate and economy, based on which India would be addressing and responding to the challenges of climate change.
In 2014-15, the Ministry was preparing India's Third NATCOM and first Biennial Update Report (BUR), containing updates of earlier reported national GHG inventories, including a national inventory report and information on mitigation actions, needs and support received. The BURs are new reporting obligation under the transparency arrangement of sharing information on implementation of the Convention. The BUR is a form of enhanced reporting, containing updates of national GHG inventories and information on mitigation actions, financial, technical needs and support received, and an update to India's Second NATCOM. The first BUR will encompass information on National Circumstances, GHG Inventories, Mitigation Actions, analysis of constraints, gaps, and related financial, technical and capacity needs and other related information along with information on domestic Monitoring, Reporting and Verification (MRV) arrangements as requested and to the extent possible.
The UPA-2 Government laid down India's domestic strategy for addressing climate change, which is reflected in many of its social and economic development programmes. The National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) coordinated by the Ministry of Environment and Forests is being implemented through the Nodal Ministries in specific sectors / areas. Eight national missions in the area of solar energy, enhanced energy efficiency, sustainable agriculture, sustainable habitat, water, Himalayan eco-system, increasing the forest cover and strategic knowledge for climate change form the core of NAPCC. All national missions were approved by the Prime Minister's Council on Climate Change and are at different stages of implementation.
Under the NDA-2 Government, the first meeting of Prime Minister's Council on Climate Change (PMCCC) was held on January 19, 2015 for reviewing the progress of National Missions, wherein the proposals for new Initiatives/ Missions on Wind Energy, Health, Waste to Energy, Coastal Areas, refocusing of Water and Agriculture Missions, revisions of targets and deliverables of the existing missions and suggestions on financing of the Missions and SAPCCs were endorsed.
The Ministry has also motivated State Governments to prepare State Action Plan on Climate Change (SAPCC). These SAPCCs aim to create institutional capacities and implement sectoral activities to address climate change. As of 2013-14, 24 State Governments have prepared and submitted documents on SAPCC to the Ministry. This number has increased to 32 under the NDA-2 Government.
The financial year 2015-16 was important for climate change both at domestic and international level. It started with the preparation of the third National Communication (NATCOM) under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and release of the Biennial Update Reports (BURs). Under the Prime Minister's Council on Climate Change (PMCCC), all National Missions under the National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) were asked to revisit their plans. New missions on wind energy, health, waste to energy and coastal areas was also taken up. Also, it redesigned the National Water Mission and National Mission on Sustainable Agriculture.
The National Adaptation Fund for Climate Change (NAFCC) was made operational in 2015-16. To develop institutional capacities and implement state level activities to address climate change, the State Action Plan on Climate change (SAPCCC) is being prepared. To create and strengthen the scientific and analytical capacity for assessment of climate change in the country different studies under Climate Change Action Programme (CCAP) has been initiated. During this financial year, many important bilateral and multilateral meetings and international negotiations on climate change were held. India submitted its Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) to the UNFCCC. During COP-21 in Paris, India Pavilion was set up to showcase and share information on India's action on climate change.
The National Adaptation Fund for Climate Change (NAFCC) was operationalized in 2015-16. The fund is meant to assist National- and State-level activities to meet the cost of adaptation measures in areas that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change. This scheme has been taken as Central Sector Scheme with the National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) as National Implementing Entity (NIE). The overall aim of the fund is to support concrete adaptation activities which are not covered under on-going schemes of State and National Government that reduce the adverse affects of climate change facing community, sector, and States.
During 2015-16, sixteen concept notes received from State governments (with an approximate cost of Rs. 313 crores) have been considered by the Technical Scrutiny Committee (TSC). The National Steering Committee on Climate Change (NSCCC) approved 6 Detailed Project Reports (DPRs) submitted by Punjab (Rs. 18.24 crores), Odisha (Rs. 20 crores), Himachal Pradesh (Rs. 20 crores), Manipur (Rs. 10 crores) , Tamil Nadu (Rs. 24.7 crores), and Kerala (Rs. 25 crores) at a total cost Rs. 117.98 crores. During 2016-17, this number increased to 18 projects. 6 projects submitted by Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Haryana, Assam, and West Bengal have been approved in 2016-17 at a total cost of Rs. 133.29 crores.
A scientific plan was also developed in December 2015, for launching long-term ecological observatories program at eight sites to study the effects of climate change. Under this program, health of eight different biomes will be assessed.
On Gandhi Jayanti in 2015, India submitted its Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) to the UNFCCC. The approach of India's INDC has been anchored in the vision of equity inspired by Mahatma Gandhi's famous exhortation - "Earth has enough resources to meet people's needs, but will never have enough to satisfy people's greed". India's INDC focuses on all elements, i.e. mitigation, adaptation, finance, technology development and transfer, and capacity building. It represents high ambition and attempts to balance needs of the poor and environmental sustainability. It also has a strong focus on adaptation sectors.
The year 2016-17 saw the release of the Biennial Updates Report (BUR) on January 22, 2016, and the initiation of the third National Communication (NATCOM) for submission to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). India has ratified the Paris Agreement to the UNFCCC on October 2, 2016. The Paris Agreement entered into force on November 4, 2016 and as on October 5, 2016, 116 Parties have ratified the Paris Agreement. The action plan for implementation of Paris Agreement and its components is being developed.